Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), astronomers found a rotating baby galaxy 1/100th the size of the Milky Way at a time when the Universe was only seven percent of its present age. Thanks to assistance by the gravitational lens effect, the team was able to explore for the first time the nature of small and dark "normal galaxies" in the early Universe, representative of the main population of the first galaxies, which greatly advances our understanding of the initial phase of galaxy evolution.
Hiroaki Sameshima (The University of Tokyo) and his research group have observed quasars using WINERED, a spectrograph jointly developed by The University of Tokyo and Kyoto Sangyo University, and succeeded in quantitatively estimating how much iron and magnesium were present in the universe about 10 billion years ago.
The research team lead by Ryou Ohsawa (the University of Tokyo) successfully observed 228 faint meteors by radar and in optical simultaneously with Tomo-e Gozen, a wide-field CMOS camera, and the MU radar, one of the largest atmosphere radars. The team first presented a statistically-reliable relationship between the radar cross section and the optical brightness and a method to estimate the meteoroid mass from radar observations. The team estimated that the amount of interplanetary dust falling onto the Earth as faint meteors is about 1,000 kg a day.
Astronomers obtained the first resolved image of disturbed gaseous clouds in a galaxy 11 billion light-years away by using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The team led by Kaiki Inoue (Kindai University) and Takeo Minezaki (the University of Tokyo) found that the disruption is caused by young powerful jets ejected from a supermassive black hole residing at the center of the host galaxy.