IoA_Seminar

 

講演リスト

No. 421: August 5, 2024 (Mon) 15:30-16:30

Place: Lecture room, IoA, Univ. of Tokyo

Speaker: 郡和範 (国立天文台科学研究部)

Title: ダークマター・ダークエネルギーの正体を暴く天文観測

Language: 日本語

Abstract: 本講演は世話人の意向により日本語で行う。近年、極めて高い精度で、宇宙を構成するエネルギー成分の割合が報告されている。それらは、ダークマターが約27%、ダークエネルギーが約68%であり、目に見える通常の物質はたった約5%しかないことが明らかになってきた。我々のコミュニティーの次の目標は、ダークマターとダークエネルギーの正体を暴くことである。これは、必ず宇宙での観測を通して行わなければならない。なぜなら、独立した地上実験、例えば加速器実験などで新粒子が見つかったとしても、それが本当にこの宇宙に存在しているかどうかを証明しなければ、それらがダークマターやダークエネルギーであると同定されることは無いからである。今回、複数のダークマターとダークエネルギーの候補の理論モデルを解説し、将来の天文観測でのそれらの同定方法のアイディアについて紹介する。

No. 420: June 25, 2024 (Tue) 16:00-17:00

Place: Lecture room, IoA, Univ. of Tokyo

Speaker: James W. Beletic (Chief Scientific Officer, Teledyne Digital Imaging)

Title: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - Humankind’s greatest space science facility

Language: English

Abstract: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is NASA’s flagship astronomy and astrophysics mission that was launched on December 25, 2021 and is operating in a halo orbit at Lagrange Point 2 (L2), 1.5 million km from Earth. With a 6.5-meter diameter primary mirror that is cooled to 50K and four infrared instruments, JWST is investigating four major science areas: ・First light and reionization: JWST is a powerful time machine with infrared vision that is looking back 13.5 billion years to see the first stars and galaxies forming in the early Universe. ・Assembly of galaxies: JWST’s unprecedented infrared sensitivity enables astronomers to compare the faintest, earliest galaxies to today’s spiral and elliptical galaxies, helping us understand how galaxies assemble over billions of years. ・Birth of stars and protoplanetary systems: JWST can see into massive clouds of dust that are opaque to visible-light observatories (like Hubble), where stars and planetary systems are being born. ・Planets and origins of life: JWST is telling us more about the atmospheres of extrasolar planets, and perhaps will even find the building blocks of life elsewhere in the Universe. In addition to other planetary systems, JWST will also study objects within our own solar system.

This presentation starts with the scientific motivation of JWST and reviews the major technological innovations that were needed to build the observatory. The four JWST instruments are presented with the optical path of the NIRSpec animated. The infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) are presented and performance of the FPAs and telescope optics are reviewed; telescope performance is exceeding specification in spite of micrometeoroid hits on the primary mirror. The process of image data collection and processing is demonstrated by the iconic “Cosmic Cliffs” image (shown below). The presentation concludes with scientific examples that demonstrate the breadth of JWST capability and glimpse of the science that will be performed over the next two decades.

No. 419: June 25, 2024 (Tue) 11:00-12:00

Place: Lecture room, IoA, Univ. of Tokyo

Speaker: Meghan Dorn (Teledyne Scientific & Imaging)

Title: Teledyne Imaging Sensors Infrared FPAs for Astronomy & Earth Observation

Language: English

Abstract: TBD

No. 418: June 19, 2024 (Wed) 14:00-14:30

Place: Lecture room, IoA, Univ. of Tokyo

Speaker: F. Peter Schloerb (Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst)

Title: Thermal stabilization of the Large Millimeter Telescope

Language: English

Abstract: External environmental conditions lead to thermal deformations of the primary reflector of the 50-m diameter Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT). This talk describes efforts to improve the night-time performance of the telescope at millimeter-wavelengths and allow extension of scientific observations into daylight hours, using the LMT's active surface to counteract the effects of thermal gradients within the antenna structure. Several approaches to stabilizing the LMT’s thermal behavior will be described, including operation of a ventilation system in the antenna backup structure and a real-time metrology system to measure and correct large-scale, thermally induced, surface deformations.

No. 417: June 19, 2024 (Wed) 13:30-14:00

Place: Lecture room, IoA, Univ. of Tokyo

Speaker: David H. Hughes (Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica)

Title: The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) Alfonso Serrano: current status and future upgrades

Language: English

Abstract: The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) Alfonso Serrano is a bi-national (Mexico and USA) telescope facility constructed on the summit of Sierra Negra, at an altitude of 4600m, in the Mexican state of Puebla. The LMT is a 50-m diameter single-dish radio-telescope designed, constructed and optimized to conduct scientific observations using heterodyne and continuum receivers, as well as VLBI observations, at frequencies between ~70 and 350 GHz. The LMT has an active surface control-system to correct gravitational and thermal deformations of the primary reflector to enable both night-time and daytime observations. We describe the current status and technical performance of the LMT, the instrumentation development program, and an on-going series of engineering and technical upgrades that will increase the optical efficiency and sensitivity of the telescope which will improve the overall scientific productivity and operational efficiency of the LMT.

No. 416: June 13, 2024 (Thu) 15:30-16:30

Place: Lecture room, IoA, U. Tokyo

Speaker: Kohei Hattori (The Institute of Statistical Mathematics/NAOJ)

Title: Dynamics and chemistry of the Milky Way revealed from Gaia data

Language: English

Abstract: Our Milky Way galaxy is unique in that we can obtain the three-dimensional position, velocity and detailed chemical abundances for many individual stars. The massive data sets from long-term spectroscopic surveys and astrometric satellite Gaia, equipped with modern data mining algorithms, have revealed rich structures in the Galactic stellar halo (stellar streams; perturbation from Large Magellanic Cloud) and disk (influence from spiral arms and bar), which hint at the Milky Way's dynamic formation and evolution history. In this talk, I will cover several topics in Galactic dynamics and archaeology, including my recent works: (1) Inference of the dark matter distribution [https://arxiv.org/abs/2012.03908]. (2) Search for disrupted dwarf galaxies [https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.04110]. (3) Analysis of extremely-low-resolution (R=50) Gaia XP spectra to obtain stellar chemistry via machine learning [https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.01269].

No. 415: June 6, 2024 (Thu) 15:30-16:30

Place: Lecture room, IoA, U. Tokyo

Speaker: Jong-Hak Woo (Seoul National University)

Title: Understanding black hole engine based on time-domain studies

Language: English

Abstract: Mass-accreting massive black holes are presumably the most energetic and dynamic sources in the universe, not to mention that they are also an important ingredient of galaxies. However, our understanding of the central engine of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is mainly limited due to the lack of proper spatial resolution. In this talk I will discuss how we can unveil the structure of black hole engine via time-domain studies. First, I will present a couple of exciting results from the Seoul National University AGN Monitoring Project (SAMP), which was carried out for six years, (2016-2021), and discuss our on-going variability studies for measuring the size of accretion disk and torus. Second, I will discuss the changing-look AGNs, which are currently challenging the orientation-based unification model of AGNs. In particular I will present our new discovery of changing-look AGNs based on the variability characteristic analysis and spectroscopic confirmation.

No. 414: May 16, 2024 (Thu) 15:30-16:30

Place: Lecture room, IoA, U. Tokyo

Speaker: 諸隈佳菜 (天文学教育研究センター)

Title: Galaxy evolution in overdense environments

Language: English

Abstract: Galaxies evolve through the interaction with their surrounding environment. Galaxies are born within the large-scale structure of the universe, and they do not uniformly exist. Consequently, galaxy evolution is expected to differ based on their environment. In fact, in nearby galaxy clusters, it is known that galaxies with similar stellar masses exhibit lower levels of star formation activity compared to typical environments. Conversely, the contribution from galaxies within galaxy clusters or "proto"-clusters to the cosmic star formation rate density rises with increasing redshifts. It is estimated that during the epoch of cosmic reionization, these galaxies could contribute to over 50% of the cosmic star formation rate density. We investigate the reasons behind the low star formation activity in current galaxy clusters and the high star formation activity in high-redshift protoclusters using observations and cosmological galaxy formation simulations. For instance, we discovered that the low star formation activity in galaxies belonging to the Virgo cluster and the Fornax cluster is not due to a decrease in the efficiency of converting molecular gas into stars, but rather because of the lower amount of molecular gas available (Morokuma-Matsui+2021; 2022). In this presentation, I will also introduce our ongoing research on protoclusters at redshifts 6 to 14, utilizing data from a cosmological galaxy formation simulation, FOREVER22 (Yajima+2022).



トップ   編集 凍結 差分 履歴 添付 複製 名前変更 リロード   新規 一覧 検索 最終更新   ヘルプ   最終更新のRSS
Last-modified: 2024-06-18 (火) 11:41:06