* 講演リスト [#g8648f7a]

** No. 408: 16 Nov. 2023 (Thu) 15:30-16:30 [#l5c750ab]
*** Place: Lecture room, IoA, U. Tokyo [#yfc32b99]
*** Speaker: Haruka Kusakabe (NAOJ/JSPS) 日下部晴香 (国立天文台/学振PD) [#udb98983]
*** Title: CGM observations in emission [#ye08ac80]

Language: English

Abstract: The evolution of galaxies is directly linked to the gas reservoirs surrounding them, so-called, "the circum-galactic medium (CGM)". Gas and metals are exchanged via inflows and outflows through the CGM, which is an interface between the interstellar medium (i.e., galaxy) and intergalactic medium (the rest of the Universe). The CGM has been studied with absorption lines imprinted in spectra of bright background quasars (tomography), but this method is limited to line of sight and cannot provide the 2D spatial distribution of the CGM. Recent sensitive, wide-FoV integral-field spectrographs (such as VLT/MUSE and Keck/KCWI) make it possible to individually detect the CGM in emission, which allows us to map the gas and metals around host galaxies. In this talk, I will review the recent progress of observations and understanding of hydrogen gas and metals around z>~2 galaxies, which are detected as extended Lyα emission (Lyα haloes) and metal-line haloes. I will also bridge the CGM observations in emission and absorption and introduce comparisons with simulations.

** No. 407: 7 Nov. 2023 (Tue) 10:30-11:30 [#f0975221]
*** Place: Lecture room, IoA, U. Tokyo [#y25a2e82]
*** Speaker: 浅山信一郎 (SKAO) [#sa309dde]
*** Title: 電波天文観測装置と情報通信技術 [#bce74a02]

Language: Japanese

 ミリ波・サブミリ波(35– 950GHz)帯の巨大電波望遠鏡であるアルマ望遠鏡は、
高感度と高解像度で描き出してきた。また長波長(50MHz – 15GHz)帯の次世代
大型電波望遠鏡としてSquare Kilometre Array (SKA) の建設が開始されている。

技術の関係について俯瞰する。また、近年のソフトウェア無線 (SDR : Software 
Defined Radio) の発展により実現可能となった、安価で手軽な機器を用いた

** No. 406: 26 Oct. 2023 (Thu) 15:30-16:30 [#ae68c062]
*** Place: Lecture room, IoA, U. Tokyo [#gc7c5777]
*** Speaker: Yuki Hirao 平尾優樹 (天文学教育研究センター) [#kdf74702]
*** Title: The latest findings and future prospects in exoplanet studies through gravitational microlensing [#j06ee105]

Language: Japanese

Abstract: Gravitational microlensing has a unique strength in its sensitivity to planets with masses as low as Earth mass just beyond the snow line, where the core accretion theory of planetary formation predicts the most efficient planet formation. Because it does not rely on the light from the host star, microlensing can detect the planets orbiting around faint stars such as M-dwarfs and brown dwarfs, as well as free-floating planets, and black holes. So far, about 250 exoplanets were found by this method thanks to survey observations by MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics), OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) and KMT-Net (Korean Microlensing Telescope Network) groups. In this talk, I will present recent results provided by microlensing observations. I will also talk about the PRIME (PRime-focus Infrared Microlensing Experiments) project, which has recently started survey observations towards the Galactic center in infrared in South Africa.

** No. 405: 3 Oct. 2023 (Tue) 16:00-17:00 [#e7156e27]
*** Place: room 1109, Department of Astronomy, School of Science building #1 (Hongo Campus) [#xa06052d]
*** Speaker: Ewine van Dishoeck (Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands) [#m044053b]
*** Title: Protostars and protoplanetary disks with JWST: first results from the JOYS and MINDS programs [#g1068b2e]

Language: English

Abstract: This talk will present first results of the MIRI-MRS spectra of a number of protostars, T Tauri and brown dwarf disks resulting from the JOYS and MINDS GTO programs as well as a number of open time programs. Rich ice spectra are seen in dark clouds and the cold outer envelopes of protostars hinting at the presence of complex molecules in ices formed very early in the evolution. In young and mature disks, many lines from gaseous CO, H2O, CO2, C2H2 and HCN are found, but also surprising new molecules are detected. Together they point to a rich chemistry that is linked to the physical structure of the inner regions of these disks and thereby provides a unique diagnostic of it. Background information: the 55 hr JWST Observations of Young protoStars (JOYS) GTO program (PI: van Dishoeck) uses MIRI to investigate the physical and chemical properties of two dozen protostars and their immediate environment. JOYS studies the physical characteristics of embedded disks, accretion signatures onto the protostars, feedback from the young protostars on their environment through primordial jets and outflows, as well as the chemical gas and ice constituents of the protostellar envelopes to feed the disks. The goal of the 120 hr MIRI Mid INfrared Disk Survey (MINDS) GTO program (Th. Henning, I. Kamp co-PIs) is to use JWST to (1) investigate the chemical inventory of the terrestrial planet forming zone, (2) to follow the gas evolution into the disk dispersal stage, and to (3) study the structure of protoplanetary and debris disks in the thermal mid-IR. The program builds a bridge between the chemical inventory of planet-forming disks and the properties of exoplanets. In total, about 50 targets (Herbig Ae stars, T Tauri stars, brown dwarfs and young debris disks) are being observed.

** No. 404: 29 June 2023 (Thu) 15:30-16:30 [#n9ab24a5]

*** Place: Lecture room, IoA 1st floor, the University of Tokyo [#i638a5c9]

*** Speaker: 谷口 琴美 (国立天文台科学研究部) / Kotomi Taniguchi (Division of Science, NAOJ) [#c4934a62]

*** Title: Chemical complexity around massive young stellar objects revealed by ALMA [#b8c06439]

Language: Japanese

Abstract: Chemical composition around young stellar objects (YSOs) is an essential tool to investigate physical conditions and the history of star formation. Approximately 300 molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium so far. Some of them are categorized into complex organic molecules (COMs), and others are called carbon-chain molecules, which account for ~40% of the interstellar molecules. In this talk, I will present our recent work on chemistry on COMs and carbon-chain species around massive YSOs using ALMA. One topic is a study to investigate the formation processes of NH2CHO, a possible prebiotic molecule, using the ALMA Band 6 data toward 30 high-mass star-forming regions called the DIHCA project. Another topic is research to investigate chemical differentiation among carbon-chain species and nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing COMs using ALMA Band 3 data. We have proposed new carbon-chain chemistry around massive YSOs which we name Hot Carbon-Chain Chemistry (HCCC). 

** No. 403: 8 June 2023 (Thu) 15:30-16:30 [#n2f92204]

*** Place: Lecture room, IoA 1st floor, the University of Tokyo [#j8f83dc2]

*** Speaker: 今井 正尭 (東京大学理学系研究科天文学教育研究センター) / Masataka Imai (Institute of Astronomy, the University of Tokyo) [#vd4c53ed]

*** Title: Observations of planetary-scale waves on Venus atmosphere [#ka7da17e]

Language: Japanese

Abstract: The mystery of the fast-rotating atmosphere on Venus is well known as the name of the super-rotation. At the cloud top altitude of ~70 km, the super-rotation reaches 100 ms-1 and many types of atmospheric waves are found as periodical signals in winds and temperatures. Planetary-scale waves are one of the important clues that maintain the super-rotation by transporting angular momentum and heat. Imai et al. [2016] implemented long-term monitoring of the rotation period of planetary-scale UV features using a ground-based telescope. Two significant periodicities, at 5.1 and 3.5 days, should be manifestations of these planetary-scale waves (Rossby wave and Kelvin wave, respectively), which were subjected to temporal variations within several months. However, the temporal evolution of these variations remained largely unknown. On 7 December 2015, the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter named Akatsuki successfully inserted the Venus orbit, and its exploration is still ongoing. The periodicities in the UV brightness and winds derived from cloud-tracking were analyzed throughout the entire observation, and dramatic evolutions of planetary-scale waves were revealed [Imai et al., 2019]. One of the prominent events was observed from June to October 2017, where a 5-day Rossby wave consisting of equatorially symmetric planetary-scale vortices with zonal wavenumber 1 had been captured. At the same time, planetary-scale temperature deviations associated with the 5-day wave were reconstructed for the first time from the Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) images. By using cloud-tracked winds and brightness temperature measurements, angular momentum and heat fluxes induced by the 5-day wave were quantitatively estimated. While the origin of transient waves is still unclear, the poleward heat transport suggests that they can be related to upward propagating Rossby waves and/or baroclinic instability waves in the lower cloud layer. In this talk, I would like to introduce our research with the "history" of myself involved in planetary exploration missions based on my background in ground-based observations.

** No. 402: 25 May 2023 (Thu) 15:30-16:30 [#bdd80f44]

*** Speaker: Shinji Fujita (Institute of Astronomy, the University of Tokyo) [#u54bbd3f]

*** Title: Distance determination of molecular clouds in the Galaxy using deep learning [#r69b642d]

Language: Japanese

Abstract: Machine learning has been successfully applied in varied field but whether it is a viable tool for determining the distance to molecular clouds in the Galaxy is an open question. In the Galaxy, the kinematic distance is commonly employed as the distance to a molecular cloud. However, there is a problem in that for the inner Galaxy, two different solutions, the “Near" solution, and the “Far" solution, can be derived simultaneously. We attempted to construct a two-class ( “Near” or “Far” ) inference model using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), a form of deep learning that can capture spatial features generally. In this study, we used the CO dataset toward the 1st quadrant of the Galactic plane obtained with the Nobeyama 45-m radio telescope (l = 62-10 degree, |b| < 1 degree). In the model, we applied the three-dimensional distribution (position-position-velocity) of the 12CO (J=1-0) emissions as the main input. The dataset with “Near” or “Far” annotation was made from the HII region catalog of the infrared astronomy satellite WISE to train the model. As a result, we could construct a CNN model with a 76% accuracy rate on the training dataset. By using the model, we determined the distance to molecular clouds identified by the CLUMPFIND algorithm. We found that the mass of the molecular clouds with a distance of < 16.3 kpc identified in the 12CO data follows a power-law distribution with an index of about from -1.5 to -2.3 in the mass range of M >1000 Msun. In particular, the slope was shallow in the arm region and the bar-end region. Also, the detailed molecular gas distribution of the Galaxy as seen from the Galactic North pole was determined. In addition, we obtained a result that approximately 450 cloud-cloud collision events are expected to be included in the data.

** No. 401: 20 April 2023 (Thu) 15:30-16:30 [#m02d0d06]

*** Speaker: Yao-Lun Yang (Research Scientist, RIKEN) [#vd4c53ed]

*** Title: Complex chemistry in the era of JWST and ALMA [#ka7da17e]

Language: English

Abstract: The discovery of complex organic molecules (COMs) in solar-type protostars highlights the extensive chemical evolution at the onset of planet formation.  These molecules, which are potential precursors to pre-biotic molecules, are also found in comets that contain the most pristine matter in the solar system.  In recent years, the increasing detection of COMs by interferometric sub-mm/mm observations, such as ALMA and VLA, suggest a common presence of COMs in the early stage of star formation.  However, the formation pathways of COMs and whether most protostars undergo similar chemical evolution remain open questions with incomplete observational constraints.  It is thought that COMs form in the ice mantles on dust grains followed by thermal sublimation near protostars, but direct observational constraints are scarce.  While ALMA provides sub-100 au resolution, a resolution necessary to resolve sites of planet formation, to characterize gaseous COMs in nearby embedded protostars, measurements of chemical composition in ices had been limited by low-resolution and limited sensitivity spectroscopy until JWST, which can probe ices at a spatial scale comparable to that by ALMA with unprecedented sensitivity.  In this talk, I will highlight the frontier of complex chemistry from observations of COMs in both gas- and ice-phase.  Particularly, I will discuss the recent JWST results on ice in protostellar environments, especially focusing on the latest results of the CORINOS program.  We have found potential signatures of icy COMs in a young embedded protostar.  I will also discuss the prospects of a holistic chemical analysis of both ice and gas in the era of JWST and ALMA.

** No. 400: 6 th Apr. 2023 (Thu) 15:30-16:30 [#n2f92204]

*** Speaker: Doug Johnstone (Principal Research Officer, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Centre and President’s Science Advisor, National Research Council Canada) [#qba3fbc6]

*** Title: What the Variability of Embedded Protostars Tells Us about Accretion: Past, Present, and Future [#l6afbc71]

Language: English

Abstract: The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) has been monitoring eight nearby
low-mass star-forming regions in the Gould Belt at submillimetre
wavelengths for over six years to search for and quantify the time
dependent brightness variability of the resident deeply embedded
protostars. Secular variability is common among these protostars; greater
than 25% of the sample show measurable long-term brightness changes and 10%
show burst behaviour lasting months to years. We interpret this secular
variability as reflecting changes in the mass accretion rate from the disk
to the protostar, as predicted by theoretical models of (proto)stellar
assembly.  For a subset of our sample we have contemporaneous mid-IR
light-curves which allow additional constraints on the conditions
responsible for the brightness variations, confirming that the
submillimetre variability is driven by changes in the dust temperature
profile of the envelope. Furthermore, we have combined, for one source,
single dish and interferometric sub-mm monitoring, which has allowed us to
unambiguously recover a time lag in the variability at larger angular
scales and use the results to confirm the envelope structure surrounding
the embedded protostar. More recently, we have added somewhat more distant
intermediate mass regions to our JCMT monitoring and collaborated with the
Maser Monitoring Organization (M2O) in follow-up of more massive protostar
candidate variables.

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